Statistical Guidelines and Definitions


South Dakota Volleyball Coaches Association (SDVCA)

Definitions for each statistical category are provided below.  At the completion of the match, the statistician shall complete the "Match Statistics" form.

ACE -- A serve which lands in the opponent's court without being touched, or is touched, but unable to be kept in play by one or more receiving team players.

BLOCK -- Player(s) blocks the ball into the opponent's court leading to a point or side out.  Blocks are only awarded when it leads immediately to a point or loss of rally.  If the blocked ball is played by the opposition and the rally continues, NO BLOCK IS AWARDED.

ASSIST -- Awarded to a player who passes the ball to a teammate who attacks the ball for a kill.  Can be awarded off a dig (first contact), provided the attack comes on the second contact.

KILL -- An attack by a player that is not returnable by the receiving player on the opposing team and leads directly to a point or loss of rally.

DIG -- A player passes the ball which has been attacked by the opposition.  Digs are only given when players receive an attacked ball and it is kept in play.  A BALL THAT HAS BEEN TOUCHED BY BLOCKERS AND THEN PLAYED BY THE DEFENSE IS A DIG.

American Volleyball Coaches Association (AVCA)

KILLS -- any attack that lands for a point
Also, award a KILL when...
...a free ball crosses the net and lands on the floor.
...a set, intentional or not, crosses the net and lands on the floor. attack is blocked out of bounds or in the net.
...when an opposing blocker is in the net, or has a centerline violation.
...a dig attempt that crosses the net and lands on the floor for a point the attacking team. attack followed immediately by an official's called blocking error (see block error).

ATTACK ATTEMPT -- any overhead contact of the ball designed to score

ATTACK ERROR -- any overhead contact of the ball that... hit out of bounds. hit into the net leading to a four-hit violation.
...hits the antenna. blocked down by the opposition on the same side of the attacker leading to a point.
...makes a centerline violation. called for an illegal contact.

ATTACK PERCENTAGE -- kills minus errors, divided by total attacks
...10 kills - 2 errors / 16 total attacks = 8/16 = .500

ASSIST -- awarded to the player who passes the ball to a teammate who attacks the ball for a kill
...generally is the second contact in a play sequence, followed immediately by a kill on the third contact
...can be awarded off a dig (first contact), provided the attack comes on the second contact

SERVICE ACE -- awarded when...
...a serve lands untouched on the opponent's side.
...the receiving team has overlapped or is out of rotation.
...the passer is whistled for a reception error.
...the serve is passed, but cannot be kept in play.

SERVICE ERROR -- awarded when...
...the server foot faults.
...the serve doesn't advance past net, is out of bounds, or hits antenna.
...the server is out of rotation (service error is charged to the person who should have served).
Note:  A ball that hits the net but continues over to the opponents side and remains in bounds is not a service error.

RECEPTION ATTEMPT -- awarded when…
...a Team B player attempts to receive Team A player's serve.

RECEPTION ERROR -- awarded when...
...the serve hits the floor near a player.
...a player passes the ball, but it can't be kept in play.
...a player is called for a lift.
Note:  For every service ace, there must be a corresponding reception error.  When a service ace falls between two players and the scorer cannot judge fault, a Team Reception error is recorded.  Team Reception errors also occur when the receiving team is out of rotation.

DIG -- awarded when a defensive player keeps a bona fide attack in play with a pass
...only awarded off an attack attempt from the opposing team.  Thus, a dig is NOT awarded when Team A continues a play off a Team B block attempt as it is not an attempt.
...NOT awarded on a serve attempt, as this is a serve reception

BLOCKS -- awarded when a player blocks the ball to the opposition's court leading directly to a point without a successful dig
...SOLO -- when only one blocker is up
...ASSIST -- when more than one blocker is up, awarded to all contributing blockers regardless if only one person blocks the ball.  Generally, a block assist occurs with two blockers, but may occur occasionally with three blockers.  However, all three blockers must go up at the same time and provide an overlap. 
Note:  A block solo and block assist cannot be recorded on the same play.  During the same rally, only one team block (block solo or block assists) can be awarded.  A block (solo or assisted) is not credited if the opposing team successfully digs the block attempt. 

TEAM BLOCKS -- calculated by adding the total number of block solos and adding to half the total of block assists
...block solos = 4, block assists = 12 -- TEAM BLOCKS = 4 + (12/2) = 10

BLOCKING ERROR -- awarded when...
...blocker is in the net or steps over the center line.
...back row blocker.
...blocker is called for reaching over the net.
Note:  A blocking error is not given for poor technique.  In general, a blocking error only is given after a referee's call.  Also, a kill is awarded to the opposing attacker on a blocking error if an attack was occurring at the time of the block error.

TOTAL POINTS – calculated by adding kills, blocks, and service aces
...In a single game,  Player A gets 8 kills, 2 blocks, and 1 service ace = 11 total points in that game.
...Total Points Per Game for season = kills + blocks + aces / total games played


  1. Every service ace must have a corresponding reception error.  Conversely, every reception error must have a service ace.
  2. Every assist must have a corresponding kill.
  3. Overpasses ARE NOT reception errors.
  4. Since blocks must come off an opponent's attack attempt, Team B's offensive attack from Team A's overpass should be recorded as an attack (kill if Team B's execution leads directly to a point).  This situation appears often as a block or directional attack at the net.  However, blocks can only be awarded on an opponent's attack, not overpass.